Scientific results

HELGA has resulted in the following overall scientific results.

Overall findings of HELGA

Reviews and editorials

  • Editorials about the role of dietary fiber and whole grains in the prevention of chronic diseases have been published in British Medical Journal (ref. 87) and American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (ref. 44)
  • Several reviews has been published discussing whole grains and health (ref. 21, 22, 44)

Whole grains and cancer

  • Dietary fiber and whole-grain intakes have been found to be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (ref. 17, 29, 40)
  • Whole-grain intake was found not to be associated with prostate cancer (ref. 15), endometrial cancer (ref. 1) or breast cancer risk (ref. 16)
  • Whole-grain intake in early life has been found to be associated with a reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer (ref. 90)
  • No association has been found between biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake (alkylresorcinols) and endometrial cancer (ref. 77)
  • Plasma levels of alkylresorcinols (biomarkers of whole-grain intake) is associated with lower risk of distal colon cancer (ref 42)

Whole grains and type 2 diabetes

  • Whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes (ref. 92).
  • An overview of the role of antioxidants, found in high amounts in whole grains, in the prevention of type 2 diabetes has been published (ref. 13)
  • The role of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism has been discussed (ref. 28)
  • The role of sourdough fermentation of whole-grain wheat in solubility of arabinoxylans and protein, and effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses has been investigated (ref. 55)

Intervention studies - metabolic effects of whole grains

  • An intervention study in healthy individuals: Whole-grain foods was found not to affect insulin sensitivity, or markers of lipid oxidation and inflammation (ref. 6).
  • Whole-grain intake has been found to decrease urinary C-peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen in men diagnosed with prostate cancer (ref. 49)
  • The satiating role of whole-grains, especially whole-grain rye, has been investigated (ref. 30, 31, 32)

Metabolomics

  • Metabolomic profiling has identified urinary changes and changes in blood plasma in humans after a whole-grain rye (versus wheat) intervention (ref. 9, 10, 63)
  • Benzoxazinoid derivatives in whole-grain rye and wheat has been characterized using metabolomics (ref. 25)
  • Novel lignans in whole-grain rye has been characterized using metabolomics (ref. 26)
  • Metabolomics has been used to identify the effects of whole-grain rye on the metabolic profile of plasma drawn from prostate cancer patients (ref. 64)

Biomarkers of intake - alkylresorcinols

  • Plasma levels of alkylresorcinols (biomarkers of whole-grain intake) is associated with lower risk of distal colon cancer (ref 42)
  • Plasma levels of alkylresorcinols (biomarkers of whole-grain intake) vary across European populations (ref. 93)

Biomarkers of effect - enterolactone

  • No association between blood levels of enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer (ref. 2)
  • High enterolactone levels in blood in women with breast cancer has been found to be associated with lower mortality (ref. 74)

Biomarkers of effect - acrylamide

  • A study investigating the association between acrylamide, measure in red blood cells, and incidence of breast cancer in the EPIC cohort is ongoing.
  • The association between acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer has been investigated in a Danish cohort study (ref. 73)
  • The effect of moisture on acrylamide reducing during storage of rye bread has been investigated (ref. 68)
  • Dietary determinants of acrylamide adducts has been described (ref. 78)
  • The levels of acrylamide adducts in red blood cells has been described in a subpopulation of the European EPIC cohort (ref. 91)

Characterization of whole grains

  • The content and molecular weight-distribution of dietary fiber components has been characterized in whole-grain rye bread and flour (ref. 7)
  • The weight distribution of beta-glucans in rye crisp bread has been characterized (ref. 4)
  • The role of phenolic compounds in rye has been addressed (ref. 8)
  • The effect of microbiotic fermentation on the metabolite turnover of rye bran has been investigated (ref. 24)

Descriptive studies

  • Intake of whole-grains has been described in a Scandinavian population (the HELGA cohort) (ref. 39)
  • Intake of total dietary carbohydrates, sugar, starch and fiber has been described in a European population (the EPIC cohort) (ref. 12)
  • Whole-grain intake is found to be associated with other health lifestyle habits in both a Danish (ref. 14) and a Scandinavian study (ref. 38)
  • The plasma levels of alkylresorcinols will be described in the European EPIC cohort (ref. 43)

Nordic diet

  • Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet has been found to be associated with a lower mortality (ref. 76), and a lower risk of colorectal cancer (ref. 41)
  • The diet and lifestyle of the Sami of southern Lapland has been described (ref. 69)
  • The association between a Sami diet score and mortality has been investigated in a northern Swedish cohort (ref. 71)
  • The association between a low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality has been investigated in a northern Swedish cohort (ref. 71)

1. Aarestrup J, Kyro C, Christensen J, Kristensen M, Wurtz AM, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2012a) Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a Danish cohort study. Nutr Cancer 64:1160-1168

2. Aarestrup J, Kyro C, Knudsen KE, Weiderpass E, Christensen J, Kristensen M, Wurtz AM, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2012b) Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women. Br J Nutr1-7

3. Aman P, Andersson AAM, Rakham A, Andersson R (2010) Rye, a healthy cereal full of dietary fiber. Cereal Foods World 55:231-234

4. Andersson AAM, Ruegg N, Aman P (2008) Molecular weight distribution and content of water-extractable beta-glucan in rye crisp bread. Journal of Cereal Science 47:399-406

5. Andersson A, Marklund M, Diana M, Landberg R (2011) Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations Correlate with Whole Grain Wheat and Rye Intake and Show Moderate Reproducibility over a 2- to 3-Month Period in Free-Living Swedish Adults. J Nutr 141:1712-18

6. Andersson A, Tengblad S, Karlstrom B, Kamal-Eldin A, Landberg R, Basu S, Aman P, Vessby B (2007) Whole-grain foods do not affect insulin sensitivity or markers of lipid peroxidation and inflammation in healthy, moderately overweight subjects. J Nutr 137:1401-1407

7. Andersson R, Fransson G, Tietjen M, Aman P (2009) Content and molecular-weight distribution of dietary fiber components in whole-grain rye flour and bread. J Agric Food Chem 57:2004-2008

8. Bondia-Pons I, Aura AM, Vuorela S, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K (2009) Rye phenolics in nutrition and health. Journal of Cereal Science 49:323-336

9. Bondia-Pons I, Barri T, Hanhineva K, Juntunen K, Dragsted LO, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K (2013) UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention. Mol Nutr Food Res

10. Bondia-Pons I, Nordlund E, Mattila I, Katina K, Aura AM, Kolehmainen M, Oresic M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K (2011) Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread. Nutr J 10:116

11. Bruun MH, Jakobsen GS, Krøijer S (2011) The Concern for Sociality: Practicing Equality and Hierarchy in Denmark. Social Analysis 55:

12. Cust AE, Skilton MR, van Bakel MM, Halkjaer J, Olsen A, Agnoli C, Psaltopoulou T, Buurma E, Sonestedt E, Chirlaque MD, Rinaldi S, Tjonneland A, Jensen MK, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Kaaks R, Nothlings U, Chloptsios Y, Zylis D, Mattiello A, Caini S, Ocke MC, van der Schouw YT, Skeie G, Parr CL, Molina-Montes E, Manjer J, Johansson I, McTaggart A, Key TJ, Bingham S, Riboli E, Slimani N (2009) Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 63 Suppl 4:S37-S60

13. Dembinska-Kiec A, Mykkanen O, Kiec-Wilk B, Mykkanen H (2008) Antioxidant phytochemicals against type 2 diabetes. Br J Nutr 99 E Suppl 1:ES109-ES117

14. Egeberg R, Frederiksen K, Olsen A, Johnsen NF, Loft S, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2009a) Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark. Public Health Nutr 12:1519-1530

15. Egeberg R, Olsen A, Christensen J, Johnsen NF, Loft S, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2011) Intake of whole-grain products and risk of prostate cancer among men in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Cancer Causes Control

16. Egeberg R, Olsen A, Loft S, Christensen J, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2009b) Intake of whole grain products and risk of breast cancer by hormone receptor status and histology among postmenopausal women. Int J Cancer 124:745-750

17. Egeberg R, Olsen A, Loft S, Christensen J, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2010) Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Br J Cancer 103:730-734

18. Eysteinsdottir T, et al. (2012) Assessing validity of a short food frequency questionnaire on present intake of elderly Icelanders. Under review

19. Eysteinsdottir T, Gunnarsdottir I, Thorsdottir I, Harris T, Launer LJ, Gudnason V, Steingrimsdottir L (2011) Validity of retrospective diet history: assessing recall of midlife diet using food frequency questionnaire in later life. J Nutr Health Aging 15:809-814

20. Fait A, Hanhineva K, Beleggia R, Dai N, Rogachev I, Nikiforova VJ, Fernie AR, Aharoni A (2008) Reconfiguration of the achene and receptacle metabolic networks during strawberry fruit development. Plant Physiol 148:730-750

21. Frolich W, Aman P (2010) Whole grain for whom and why? Food Nutr Res 54:doi: 10.3402/fnr.v54i0.5056

22. Frolich W, Aman P, Tetens I (2013) Whole grain foods and health - a Scandinavian perspective. Food Nutr Res 57:doi: 10.3402/fnr.v57i0.18503.

23. Halkjaer J, Olsen A, Overvad K, Jakobsen MU, Boeing H, Buijsse B, Palli D, Tognon G, Du H, van der AD, Forouhi NG, Wareham NJ, Feskens EJ, Sorensen TI, Tjonneland A (2011) Intake of total, animal and plant protein and subsequent changes in weight or waist circumference in European men and women: the Diogenes project. Int J Obes (Lond) 35:1104-1113

24. Hanhineva K, Aura AM, Rogachev I, Matero S, Skov T, Aharoni A, Poutanen K, Mykkanen H (2012) In vitro microbiotic fermentation causes an extensive metabolite turnover of rye bran phytochemicals. PLoS One 7:e39322

25. Hanhineva K, Rogachev I, Aura AM, Aharoni A, Poutanen K, Mykkanen H (2011) Qualitative characterization of benzoxazinoid derivatives in whole grain rye and wheat by LC-MS metabolite profiling. J Agric Food Chem 59:921-927

26. Hanhineva K, Rogachev I, Aura AM, Aharoni A, Poutanen K, Mykkanen H (2013) Identification of novel lignans in the whole grain rye bran by non-targeted LC-MS metabolite profiling. Metabolomics 8:399-409

27. Hanhineva K, Rogachev I, Kokko H, Mintz-Oron S, Venger I, Karenlampi S, Aharoni A (2008) Non-targeted analysis of spatial metabolite composition in strawberry (Fragariaxananassa) flowers. Phytochemistry 69:2463-2481

28. Hanhineva K, Torronen R, Bondia-Pons I, Pekkinen J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K (2010) Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism. Int J Mol Sci 11:1365-1402

29. Hansen L, Skeie G, Landberg R, Lund E, Palmqvist R, Johansson I, Dragsted LO, Egeberg R, Johnsen NF, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2012) Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort. Int J Cancer 131:469-478

30. Isaksson H, Fredriksson H, Andersson R, Olsson J, Aman P (2009) Effect of rye bread breakfasts on subjective hunger and satiety: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 8:39

31. Isaksson H, Rakha A, Andersson R, Fredriksson H, Olsson J, Aman P (2011) Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure. Nutr J 10:31

32. Isaksson H, Sundberg B, Aman P, Fredriksson H, Olsson J (2008) Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast. Food Nutr Res 52:

33. Jansson E, Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Wolk A, Vessby B, Aman P (2010a) Presence of alkylresorcinols, potential whole grain biomarkers, in human adipose tissue. Br J Nutr 104:633-636

34. Johnsen NF, Olsen A, Thomsen BL, Christensen J, Egeberg R, Bach Knudsen KE, Loft S, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2010) Plasma enterolactone and risk of colon and rectal cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish men and women. Cancer Causes Control 21:153-162

35. Kallio P, Kolehmainen M, Laaksonen DE, Pulkkinen L, Atalay M, Mykkanen H, Uusitupa M, Poutanen K, Niskanen L (2008) Inflammation markers are modulated by responses to diets differing in postprandial insulin responses in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 87:1497-1503

36. Kamal-Eldin A, Laerke HN, Knudsen KE, Lampi AM, Piironen V, Adlercreutz H, Katina K, Poutanen K, Man P (2009) Physical, microscopic and chemical characterisation of industrial rye and wheat brans from the Nordic countries. Food Nutr Res 53:

37. Kasperzyk JL, Fall K, Mucci LA, Hakansson N, Wolk A, Johansson JE, Andersson SO, Andren O (2009) One-carbon metabolism-related nutrients and prostate cancer survival. Am J Clin Nutr 90:561-569

38. Kyro C, Skeie G, Dragsted LO, Christensen J, Overvad K, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Lund E, Slimani N, Johnsen NF, Halkjaer J, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2011) Intake of whole grains in Scandinavia is associated with healthy lifestyle, socio-economic and dietary factors. Public Health Nutr 14:1787-1795

39. Kyro C, Skeie G, Dragsted LO, Christensen J, Overvad K, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Lund E, Slimani N, Johnsen NF, Halkjaer J, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2012) Intake of whole grain in Scandinavia: intake, sources and compliance with new national recommendations. Scand J Public Health 40:76-84

40. Kyro C, Skeie G, Loft S, Landberg R, Christensen J, Lund E, Nilsson LM, Palmqvist R, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2013a) Intake of whole grains from different cereal and food sources and incidence of colorectal cancer in the Scandinavian HELGA cohort. Cancer Causes Control 24:1363-1374

41. Kyro C, Skeie G, Loft S, Overvad K, Christensen J, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2013b) Adherence to a healthy Nordic food index is associated with a lower incidence of colorectal cancer in women: The Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Br J Nutr 109:920-927

42. Kyrø C, Olsen A, Landberg R, Skeie G, Loft S, Åman P, Leenders M, Dik VK, Siersema PD, Pischon T, Christensen J, Overvad K, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagherazzi G, Cottet V, Kühn T, Chang-Claude J, Boeing H, Trichopoulou A, Bamia C, Trichopoulos D, Palli D, Krogh V, Tumino R, Vineis P, Panico S, Peeters PH, Weiderpass E, Bakken T, Åsli LA, Argüelles M, Jakszyn P, Sánchez MJ, Amiano P, Huerta JM, Barricarte A, Ljuslinder I, Palmqvist R, Khaw KT, Wareham N, Key TJ, Travis RC, Ferrari P, Freisling H, Jenab M, Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Tjønneland A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB. Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014 Jan;106(1):djt352. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djt352.

43. Kyro C et al. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), ongoing study, expected published in late 2013

44. Landberg R (2012) Dietary fiber and mortality: convincing observations that call for mechanistic investigations. Am J Clin Nutr 96:3-4

45. Landberg R, Aman P, Friberg LE, Vessby B, Adlercreutz H, Kamal-Eldin A (2009a) Dose response of whole-grain biomarkers: alkylresorcinols in human plasma and their metabolites in urine in relation to intake. Am J Clin Nutr 89:290-296

46. Landberg R, Aman P, Hallmans G, Johansson I (2013) Long-term reproducibility of plasma alkylresorcinols as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake within Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study Cohort. Eur J Clin Nutrdoi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.10. [Epub ahead of print]

47. Landberg R, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2009b) A rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantification of alkylresorcinols in human plasma. Anal Biochem 385:7-12

48. Landberg R, Andersson AAM, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2009c) Comparison of GC and colorimetry for the determination of alkylresorcinol homologues in cereal grains and products. Food Chemistry 113:1363-1369

49. Landberg R, Andersson SO, Zhang JX, Johansson JE, Stenman UH, Adlercreutz H, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G (2010) Rye Whole Grain and Bran Intake Compared with Refined Wheat Decreases Urinary C-Peptide, Plasma Insulin, and Prostate Specific Antigen in Men with Prostate Cancer. J Nutr

50. Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2011) Determinants of plasma alkylresorcinol concentration in Danish post-menopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 65:94-101

51. Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson A, Vessby B, Aman P (2008a) Alkylresorcinols as biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake: plasma concentration and intake estimated from dietary records. Am J Clin Nutr 87:832-838

52. Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson SO, Johansson JE, Zhang JX, Hallmans G, Aman P (2009d) Reproducibility of plasma alkylresorcinols during a 6-week rye intervention study in men with prostate cancer. J Nutr 139:975-980

53. Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Rouau X, Aman P (2008b) Localization of alkylresorcinols in wheat, rye and barley kernels. Journal of Cereal Science 48:401-406

54. Lappi J, Kolehmainen M, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K (2013) Do large intestinal events explain the protective effects of whole grain foods against type 2 diabetes? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53:631-640

55. Lappi J, Selinheimo E, Schwab U, Katina K, Lehtinen P, Mykkanen H, Kolehmainen M, Poutanen K (2010) Sourdough fermentation of wholemeal wheat bread increases solubility of arabinoxylan and protein and decreases postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Journal of Cereal Science 51:152-158

56. Linko-Parvinen AM, Landberg R, Tikkanen MJ, Adlercreutz H, Penalvo JL (2007) Alkylresorcinols from whole-grain wheat and rye are transported in human plasma lipoproteins. J Nutr 137:1137-1142

57. Marklund M, Landberg R, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2010) Determination of alkylresorcinol metabolites in human urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 878:888-894

58. Marklund M, Landberg R, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2011) Comparison of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrode array detection for determination of alkylresorcinol metabolites in human urine. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci

59. Marklund M, Landberg R, Andersson A, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2013) Alkylresorcinol metabolites in urine correlate with the intake of whole grains and cereal fibre in free-living Swedish adults. Br J Nutr 109:129-136

60. Marklund M, Landberg R, Andersson R, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2012) Alkylresorcinol Metabolism in Swedish Adults Is Affected by Factors Other Than Intake of Whole-Grain Wheat and Rye. J Nutr

61. Menzel C, Kamal-Eldin A, Marklund M, Andersson A, Aman P, Landberg R (2012) Alkylresorcinols in Swedish cereal food products. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 28:119-125

62. Moazzami AA, Andersson R, Kamal-Eldin A (2011a) Changes in the metabolic profile of rat liver after alpha-tocopherol deficiency as revealed by metabolomics analysis. NMR Biomed 24:499-505

63. Moazzami AA, Bondia-Pons I, Hanhineva K, Juntunen K, Antl N, Poutanen K, Mykkanen H (2012) Metabolomics reveals the metabolic shifts following an intervention with rye bread in postmenopausal women--a randomized control trial. Nutr J 11:88

64. Moazzami AA, Zhang JX, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Hallmans G, Johansson JE, Andersson SO (2011b) Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics enable detection of the effects of a whole grain rye and rye bran diet on the metabolic profile of plasma in prostate cancer patients. J Nutr 141:2126-2132

65. Montonen J, Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Boeing H, Steffen A, Pischon T (2012a) Reliability of fasting plasma alkylresorcinol metabolites concentrations measured 4 months apart. Eur J Clin Nutr

66. Montonen J, Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, Boeing H, Steffen A, Pischon T (2012b) Reliability of fasting plasma alkylresorcinol metabolites concentrations measured 4 months apart. Eur J Clin Nutr 66:968-970

67. Montonen J, Landberg R, Kamal-Eldin A, Aman P, knueppel S, Boeing H, Pischon T (2010) Reliability of fasting plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations measured 4 months apart. Eur J Clin Nutr 64:698-703

68. Mustafa A, Andersson R, HellEnas KE, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A (2008) Moisture enhances acrylamide reduction during storage in model studies of rye crispbread. J Agric Food Chem 56:11234-11237

69. Nilsson LM, Dahlgren L, Johansson I, Brustad M, Sjolander P, Van GB (2011) Diet and lifestyle of the Sami of southern Lapland in the 1930s--1950s and today. Int J Circumpolar Health 70:301-318

70. Nilsson LM, Johansson I, Lenner P, Lindahl B, Van GB (2010) Consumption of filtered and boiled coffee and the risk of incident cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 21:1533-1544

71. Nilsson LM, Winkvist A, Brustad M, Jansson JH, Johansson I, Lenner P, Lindahl B, Van GB (2012a) A traditional Sami diet score as a determinant of mortality in a general northern Swedish population. Int J Circumpolar Health 71:1-12

72. Nilsson LM, Winkvist A, Eliasson M, Jansson JH, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Lindahl B, Lenner P, Van GB (2012b) Low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality in a northern Swedish population-based cohort. Eur J Clin Nutr 66:694-700

73. Olesen PT, Olsen A, Frandsen H, Frederiksen K, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2008) Acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer among postmenopausal women in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Int J Cancer 122:2094-2100

74. Olsen A, Christensen J, Knudsen KE, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2011a) Prediagnostic plasma enterolactone levels and mortality among women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat

75. Olsen A, Christensen J, Outzen M, Olesen PT, Frandsen H, Overvad K, Halkjaer J (2012) Pre-diagnostic acrylamide exposure and survival after breast cancer among postmenopausal Danish women. Toxicology 296:67-72

76. Olsen A, Egeberg R, Halkjaer J, Christensen J, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2011b) Healthy aspects of the Nordic diet are related to lower total mortality. J Nutr 141:639-644

77. Olsen A, Landberg R, Aman P, Kamal-Eldin A, Christensen J, Johnsen NF, Overvad K, Tjonneland A (2010) Plasma levels of alkylresorcinols and incidence of endometrial cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 19:73-77

78. Outzen M, Egeberg R, Dragsted L, Christensen J, Olesen PT, Frandsen H, Overvad K, Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2011) Dietary determinants for Hb-acrylamide and Hb-glycidamide adducts in Danish non-smoking women. Br J Nutr 105:1381-1387

79. Rakha A, Aman P, Andersson R (2011) How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers? Int J Mol Sci 12:3381-3393

80. Raninen K, Lappi J, Mykkanen H, Poutanen K (2011) Dietary fiber type reflects physiological functionality: comparison of grain fiber, inulin, and polydextrose. Nutr Rev 69:9-21

81. Seal CJ, de MA, Eisenbrand G, Haverkort AJ, Franke K, Lalljie SP, Mykkanen H, Reimerdes E, Scholz G, Somoza V, Tuijtelaars S, van BM, van KJ, Wilcockson SJ, Wilms L (2008) Risk-benefit considerations of mitigation measures on acrylamide content of foods--a case study on potatoes, cereals and coffee. Br J Nutr 99 Suppl 2:S1-S46

82. Skeie G, Braaten T, Hjartaker A, Brustad M, Lund E (2009a) Cod liver oil, other dietary supplements and survival among cancer patients with solid tumours. Int J Cancer 125:1155-1160

83. Skeie G, Braaten T, Hjartaker A, Lentjes M, Amiano P, Jakszyn P, Pala V, Palanca A, Niekerk EM, Verhagen H, Avloniti K, Psaltopoulou T, Niravong M, Touvier M, Nimptsch K, Haubrock J, Walker L, Spencer EA, Roswall N, Olsen A, Wallstrom P, Nilsson S, Casagrande C, Deharveng G, Hellstrom V, Boutron-Ruault MC, Tjonneland A, Joensen AM, Clavel-Chapelon F, Trichopoulou A, Martinez C, Rodriguez L, Frasca G, Sacerdote C, Peeters PH, Linseisen J, Schienkiewitz A, Welch AA, Manjer J, Ferrari P, Riboli E, Bingham S, Engeset D, Lund E, Slimani N (2009b) Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study. Eur J Clin Nutr 63 Suppl 4:S226-S238

84. Skeie G, Hjartaker A, Braaten T, Lund E (2009c) Dietary change among breast and colorectal cancer survivors and cancer-free women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer cohort study. Cancer Causes Control 20:1955-1966

85. Strandas C, Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson R, Aman P (2008a) Composition and properties of flaxseed phenolic oligomers. Food Chem 110:106-112

86. Strandas C, Kamal-Eldin A, Andersson R, Aman P (2008b) Phenolic glucosides in bread containing flaxseed. Food Chem 110:997-999

87. Tjonneland A, Olsen A (2011) Fibre and prevention of chronic diseases. BMJ 343:d6938

88. Tognon G, Nilsson LM, Lissner L, Johansson I, Hallmans G, Lindahl B, Winkvist A (2012) The Mediterranean diet score and mortality are inversely associated in adults living in the subarctic region. J Nutr 142:1547-1553

89. Torfadottir JE, Steingrimsdottir L, Mucci L, Aspelund T, Kasperzyk JL, Olafsson O, Fall K, Tryggvadottir L, Harris TB, Launer L, Jonsson E, Tulinius H, Stampfer M, Adami HO, Gudnason V, Valdimarsdottir UA (2012a) Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol 175:144-153

90. Torfadottir JE, Valdimarsdottir UA, Mucci L, Stampfer M, Kasperzyk JL, Fall K, Tryggvadottir L, Aspelund T, Olafsson O, Harris TB, Jonsson E, Tulinius H, Adami HO, Gudnason V, Steingrimsdottir L (2012b) Rye bread consumption in early life and reduced risk of advanced prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 23:941-950

91. Vesper HW, Slimani N, Hallmans G, Tjonneland A, Agudo A, Benetou V, Bingham S, Boeing H, Boutron-Ruault MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Chirlaque D, Clavel-Chapelon F, Crowe F, Drogan D, Ferrari P, Johansson I, Kaaks R, Linseisen J, Lund E, Manjer J, Mattiello A, Palli D, Peeters PH, Rinaldi S, Skeie G, Trichopoulou A, Vineis P, Wirfalt E, Overvad K, Stromberg U (2008) Cross-sectional study on acrylamide hemoglobin adducts in subpopulations from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. J Agric Food Chem 56:6046-6053

92. Kyrø C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Olsen A, Landberg R. (2018)
Higher Whole-Grain Intake Is Associated with Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes among Middle-Aged Men and Women: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort.
J Nutr. 148(9):1434-1444. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxy112.

93. Kyrø C, Olsen A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Skeie G, Loft S, Åman P, Leenders M, Dik VK, Siersema PD, Pischon T, Christensen J, Overvad K, Boutron-Ruault MC, Fagherazzi G, Cottet V, Kühn T, Chang-Claude J, Boeing H, Trichopoulou A, Naska A, Oikonomidou D, Masala G, Pala V, Tumino R, Vineis P, Mattiello A, Peeters PH, Bakken T, Weiderpass E, Asli LA, Sánchez S, Jakszyn P, Sánchez MJ, Amiano P, Huerta JM, Barricarte A, Ljuslinder I, Palmqvist R, Khaw KT, Wareham N, Key TJ, Travis RC, Slimani N, Freisling H, Ferrari P, Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Riboli E, Tjønneland A, Landberg R. Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Br J Nutr. 2014 May 28;111(10):1881-90. doi: 10.1017/S0007114513004388. Epub 2014 Feb 13.