Specific findings

REVIEWS AND EDITORIALS

  • Editorials about the role of dietary fiber and whole grains in the prevention of chronic diseases have been published in British Medical Journal (ref. Tjonneland,2011) and American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (ref. Landberg,2012)
  • Several status/opinion papers have been published discussing whole grains and health, especially with a Nordic perspective (ref. Frolich,2010; Frolich,2013)

WHOLE GRAINS AND CANCER

  • Dietary fiber and whole-grain intakes have been found to be associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer (ref. Egeberg,2010; Hansen,2012; Kyro,2013a)
  • Whole-grain intake was found not to be associated with prostate cancer (ref. Egeberg,2011), endometrial cancer (ref. Aarestrup,2012a) or breast cancer risk (ref. Egeberg,2009b)
  • Whole-grain intake in early life has been found to be associated with a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (ref. Torfadottir,2012b)
  • No association has been found between biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake (alkylresorcinols) and endometrial cancer (ref. Olsen,2010)
  • Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer has been investigated. High plasma alkylresorcinol concentration were found to be associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer, but not proximal colon cancer or rectal cancer(ref. Kyro,2013c)

WHOLE GRAINS AND TYPE 2 DIABETES

  • Whole grain intake is associated with lowe risk of type 2 diabetes (Ref Kyro, 2018)
  • An overview of the role of antioxidants, found in high amounts in whole grains, in the prevention of type 2 diabetes has been published (ref. Dembinska-Kiec,2008)
  • The role of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism has been discussed (ref. Hanhineva,2010)
  • The role of sourdough fermentation of whole-grain wheat in solubility of arabinoxylans and protein, and effect on postprandial glucose and insulin responses has been investigated (ref. Lappi,2010)

INTERVENTION STUDIES - METABOLIC EFFECTS OF WHOLE GRAINS

  • An intervention study in healthy individuals: Intake of whole-grain foods was found not to affect insulin sensitivity, or markers of lipid oxidation and inflammation (ref. Andersson,2007).
  • Whole-grain intake has been found to decrease urinary C-peptide, plasma insulin, and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in men diagnosed with prostate cancer (ref. Landberg,2010)
  • The satiating role of whole-grains, especially whole-grain rye, has been investigated (ref. Isaksson,2009; Isaksson,2011; Isaksson,2008)

METABOLOMICS

  • Metabolomic profiling has identified urinary changes and changes in blood plasma in humans after a whole-grain rye (versus wheat) intervention (ref. Bondia-Pons,2013, Bondia-Pons,2011, Moazzami, 2012)
  • Benzoxazinoid derivatives in whole-grain rye and wheat has been characterized using metabolomics (ref. Hanhineva,2011)
  • Novel lignans in whole-grain rye has been characterized using metabolomics (ref. Hanhineva,2013)
  • Metabolomics has been used to identify the effects of whole-grain rye on the metabolic profile of plasma drawn from prostate cancer patients (ref. Moazzami, 2011b)

BIOMARKERS OF WHOLE-GRAIN INTAKE

BIOMARKERS OF EFFECT - ENTEROLACTONE

  • No association between blood levels of enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer has been found (ref. Aarestrup,2012b)
  • High enterolactone levels in blood in women with breast cancer has been found to be associated with lower mortality (ref. Olsen,2011a)

BIOMARKERS OF EFFECT - ACRYLAMIDE

  • A study investigating the association between acrylamide, measure in red blood cells, and incidence of breast cancer in the EPIC cohort is ongoing. Results are expected in 2014.
  • The associations between acrylamide exposure and incidence of breast cancer (ref. Olesen,2008) and survival among women with breast cancer (Olsen,2012) have been investigated in a Danish cohort study.
  • The effect of moisture on acrylamide reducing during storage of rye bread has been investigated (ref. Mustafa,2008)
  • Dietary determinants of acrylamide adducts has been described (ref. Outzen,2011)
  • The levels of acrylamide adducts in red blood cells has been described in a subpopulation of the European EPIC cohort (ref. Vesper,2008)

CHARACTERIZATION OF WHOLE GRAINS 

  • The content and molecular weight-distribution of dietary fiber components has been characterized in whole-grain rye bread and flour (ref. Andersson,2009)
  • The weight distribution of beta-glucans in rye crisp bread has been characterized (ref.Andersson,2008 )
  • The role of phenolic compounds in rye has been addressed (ref. Bondia-Pons,2009)
  • The effect of microbiotic fermentation on the metabolite turnover of rye bran has been investigated (ref. Hanhineva,2012)

DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES

  • Intake of whole-grains has been described in a Scandinavian population (the HELGA cohort) (ref.Kyro,2012 )
  • Intake of total dietary carbohydrates, sugar, starch and fiber has been described in a European population (the EPIC cohort) (ref. Cust,2009)
  • Whole-grain intake has been found to be associated with other health lifestyle habits in both a Danish (ref. Egeberg,2009a) and a Scandinavian study (ref. Kyro,2011)
  • The plasma levels of alkylresorcinols will be described in the European EPIC cohort (ref. Kyro,2013d)

NORDIC DIET

  • Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet has been found to be associated with a lower mortality (ref. Olsen,2011b), and a lower risk of colorectal cancer (ref. Kyro,2013b)
  • The diet and lifestyle of the Sami of southern Lapland has been described (ref. Nilsson,2011)
  • The association between a Sami diet score and mortality has been investigated in a northern Swedish cohort (ref. Nilsson, 2012a)
  • The association between a low-carbohydrate, high-protein score and mortality has been investigated in a northern Swedish cohort (ref. Nilsson, 2012b)

ANTHROPOLOGY

  • An anthropological PhD study investigating the Nordic cuisine and the use of whole-grain bread is expected to be completed in late 2013/early 2014.
  • A master's thesis project investigating Danish "super healthy" families who avoid eating grains (and whole grains) was finalized in 2012.
  • A study of food security entitled: Food Security - Health and Environmental Concerns in the North, is expected published by the end of 2013. This work is a multidisciplinary work co-authored by two anthropologists and one epidemiologist.

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